Example of A Course from The Center for the Study of Human Trafficking

Spring Semester 2016

International Studies Department, Course Number I 435 31035/31036. A Practicum

Course Title: Sex Trafficking and Domestic Violence at Crossroads

Syllabus

Instructor: Stepanka Korytova, Ph.D.

Office: SGIS 1006

Office hours: M-W 5:15-6:15, and by appointment

812-856-9106

stepkory@indiana.edu

About the Course

 

Class meeting days and times:  M-W 4:00-5:15pm

Class location: Cedar Hall C 101

Required texts and materials:

Bancroft, Lundy, Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men, Berkley Books, 2002.

Academic articles (listed in the “schedule” of classes as well as at the end of this syllabus) available on the course Oncourse (in Resources)

Oncourse and other information:

All of the required articles will be posted on course Oncourse site under Resources and under author’s name.

Glossary:

ST – Sex Trafficking

DV – Domestic Violence

SL – Service Learning

MWH – the Middle Way House

 

DESCRIPTION OF ALL ASSIGNMENTS

  • Experiential Research paper: you will identify a particular experience or set of events at a service site, and will reflect upon it and analyze the experience within the broader context in order to make recommendations for subsequent action. Having located the relevant material and arrived at the conceptual framework during the second half of the semester, you will then use the research to write a formal paper that will analyze the social issue and include recommendations.

The maximum number of words will be 1,500 (about 6 pages).

 

  • Class presentation: you will share your research paper using videos, PowerPoint or speech. Creativity is welcome. Approximately 15 minutes long.

 

  • Double-entry journal: in your journals you will reflect and express your thoughts and feelings about the service experience throughout the semester. I will review the journals on a bi-weekly basis (see the syllabus for the dates).

 

  • Admission ticket: handed in as you come into the class on a 3 by 5 card. Admission ticket will have a reaction to a question that will be directly related to the reading of the day and will be posted at least 24 hours before the day of the class.

Grading:

Although I will lecture to set the stage for our discussions, this course will be run as a seminar in which participation is crucialThus, you must do the readings before class and be prepared to discuss the issues raised therein.  The readings are provocative, yet sometimes difficult.  You will read the course textbook, academic articles by scholars, but also pieces written by practitioners. You need to be aware that your work at the Middle Way House is considered the same as one of the readings for the course.

 

Course expectations and the final course grade

Assignment Due Date Percent of Final Grade
Attendance and active participation (i.e., to be quizzed) Throughout the semester 10
Admission Ticket 5 times per semester @2 10
Reflective journal  2/15, 2/29, 3/21, 4/4, 4/18 (5 times@4) 20
Identifying of an experience 2/29 5
An outline of the research paper 3/30  

10

Research paper 4/18 30
Presentations of students’ research 4/18, 4/20, 4/25  

15

 

Grading scale

97 – 100% = A+

93 – 96% = A

90 – 92% = A-

87 – 89% = B+

83 – 86% = B

80 – 82% = B-

77 – 79% = C+

73 – 76% = C

70 – 72% = C-

67 – 69% = D+

63 – 66% = D

Below 62% = Failing

 

Grade Dissemination

Grades will be posted on Oncourse.

Course description:

In this course you will read, discuss, write, and examine similarities and differences between two phenomena: sex trafficking and domestic violence. Having identified and discussed the frameworks of feminist methodologies and structural violence, the course will explore sex trafficking and domestic violence on several levels – local, national, international and global. Appraising the two issues on various levels you will compare and contrast them and also analyze how economics, governmental policies, gender relations, and cultures affect the two. The course content will offer you practical experience and knowledge enabling an assessment of the best practices in accommodating survivors of sex trafficking in domestic violence shelters. Through your service learning, readings and discussions you will examine the two forms of victimization  – sex trafficking and domestic violence – and the context in which they occur. You will look for similarities and differences. Finally, you will attempt to answer the question of whether the two phenomena occur in similar contexts and if the legal frameworks used for domestic violence could be used as a template for addressing sex trafficking survivors.

This course is a service-learning course. Remember: Service is considered as one of the required readings. You will be engaged in service learning in collaboration with the Middle Way House; you will be engaged in learning outside the classroom, which will enable you to apply your academic knowledge to the “real life” situation, and also you will be active participants in one of the agencies in your community. Through service at the Middle Way House you will be given opportunities to improve your professional skills and evaluate your role as a citizen. This service-learning course deliberately integrates community service activities with educational objectives. This community service should be meaningful not only for your educational outcomes but also to the community; it is a coordinated partnership between the campus and the community.

Service learning is defined as a “course-based, credit-bearing educational experience” in which you

  • Participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community (Middle Way House) needs and
  • Reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. Service learning is an academic enterprise.

 

Expectations:

  • We will be using the Middle Way House as a site for learning, service, and research throughout this course. You will do a service-learning (SL) project, which will take an average of 2 hours per week (20 hours a semester including additional training) plus a daylong training – a prerequisite for entry into the shelter.
  • Training BEFORE working at the Middle Way House: If you have never worked/volunteered at the Middle Way House and therefore never had the training that the Middle Way House provides here are the dates of the training you are required to take: January 18th, 9am-5pm, or January 23rd, also 9am-5pm. Place: the Bloomington Depot Transit Authority on Walnut Street. http://bloomingtontransit.com/. The earlier date is recommended, as you will need to set up a meeting with the section head to arrange your work. Let me know if you have any questions.
  • Because of the extensive service component, there will be fewer readings during the course of the semester and the main written assignments will be a series of journal reflections, culminating in a final report. To successfully complete this course, you will need to actively participate in the class and team discussions, have a professional attitude towards the SL engagement (be on time, take the work seriously, dress appropriately – more on this from the ACE coordinator), and submit the written assignments on time.

 

Requirements and Responsibilities of Service Learning at the Middle Way House

  • A daylong training by the professionals at the Middle Way House (MWH) is required prior to work at the shelter. Without this training you will not be able to fulfill the course requirements. Training by the deadline is necessary in order to pass the course.
  • While working at the Middle Way House you will record your hours on a weekly time sheet downloaded and printed out from the SL at IU website. You must present the sheet on the first day of classes. The course grade will be lowered by 2% for every hour missed at the MWH.
  • Here is the link to the time sheet: http://citl.indiana.edu/WRAP_SDDU/BL-UITS-CITL/SB-CITL/files/SL/Student%20SL%20Time%20Sheet%202011.pdf. This time sheet will be signed by Justine Krieg (juskrieg@umail.iu.edu juskrieg@umail.iu.edu) ACE for the MWH or by the MWH supervisor.
  • You will be responsible for handing in your time sheets to the instructor at the end of the semester. Tampering with the time sheet will count as academic dishonesty (see below for the IU policy).

 

  • NOTE: If you have not started SL at MWH by February 10th you will not be able to get a passing grade from the course. Your contact at the MWH: Justin Krieg: juskrieg@umail.iu.edu

 

Position opportunities at the MWH:

  • House Management – assist with inventory, donations (receiving and soliciting), simple repairs, maintenance
  • Legal Advocacy – court monitoring, data collection, research, clerical tasks, protective order support and court accompaniment
  • Children’s Program – implementing developmental program one-on-one with participants, writing proposals for support, child care
  • Prevention – presenting a prevention curriculum in middle and high school classrooms;

integrating Sex Trafficking into curriculum and adapting curriculum for particular audiences

  • Youth Empowerment – tutoring, homework help, recreation, hobbies.
  • Crisis line – working the phones as part of the agency’s 24-hour-a-day response to victims of domestic and dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking (additional training needed)
  • Reception or youth program at Rice residence
  • Outreach and social media

 

Course objectives:

The first objective is for you to understand the scope of the problem of Sex Trafficking and Domestic Violence, and national and international legislation intended to end these crimes. Our studies will begin with exploration of the theoretical works on the two areas in focus. We shall start with readings on sex trafficking and domestic violence in the United States and also on an international level. Case studies will further illustrate the different shapes and attributes of ST and DV – to what degree does geography and culture determine them? Based on the course readings we shall examine the status and the legal aspects of sex workers, and on trafficked women on an international and national level. The course will then examine domestic and international law on both domestic violence and trafficking. The last segment will bring us to the state of Indiana and to Bloomington where we will look at the case studies concentrating mainly on the victims at Middle Way House. Service Learning is not the chief objective; this experience is intended to promote growth and knowledge that can be applied across many levels of need.

Course goals:

You will be able to explain the general concepts, definitions and the causes of and differentiate between the many aspects of sex trafficking and domestic violence. Upon completion of the directed readings and discussions you will also be able to explain the inadequacies of the current sex trafficking discourse and the policy programs, and contrast them to the programs and policies addressing domestic violence in the USA and internationally and globally.

 

Learning outcomes:

  • Identify causes of sex trafficking and domestic violence and what they have in common within the context of the “Local” and “Global” (work at the Middle Way House).
  • Appraise the extent of sex trafficking and domestic violence as it involves women of all ages, and ethnicities.
  • Apply an interdisciplinary and international body of theory, resources, and methods regarding domestic violence and synthesizing the academic frameworks with that of practical experience (the research paper).
  • Interpret the fundamental concepts and debates, and laws in the field of sex trafficking and domestic violence in the USA and abroad (directed readings and class discussions).
  • Think critically about global issues, inequalities, and one’s efficacy in the world (class discussions and work in MWH).
  • Reflect, discuss and initiate creative solutions that might address a particular aspect of domestic violence (the reflective journal and the experiential research paper).
  • Develop an intellectual curiosity and habits that foster the desire and capacity for lifelong learning and the skills needed for active engagement in community (SL component of the course).
  • Develop policy proposals to address improvements of the current ones.

Important Dates to Remember

 

****Note: You will be given reasonable notice in class of any changes; you are responsible for reading the announced posts.****

 

Admission ticket Throughout the semester with at least 24 hour notice on “Announcements” on the On-course site
Attendance and active participation Throughout the semester at the beginning of the end of the class
Reflective journal 2/15, 2/29, 3/21, 4/4, 4/18
Identifying of an experience 2/29
An outline of the research paper due 3/30
Research paper due 4/18
Presentation of the research paper 4/18, 4/20, 4/25

Schedule

 

Date To Prepare for Class In-Class Activities and Topics
  Syllabus  
Week 1

1/11

Readings or assignments are to be finished BEFORE you arrive in class.

 

Introduction to the Syllabus and class expectations
Part I. General Issues: Sex Trafficking
Sex Trafficking as a function of the division between the Global North and South.
1/13 Read the syllabus.

Read: Feingold. “Human Trafficking.”

Canada: Abuse Is Wrong

 

Syllabus quiz.

 

Clarifications, Q&A.

 

Introduction to human trafficking as a global issue. Sex trafficking as subset of trafficking in human beings.

 

Film: The Economics of Happiness, a documentary. Why watch this documentary in this course?

Week 2

1/18

M.L. King Birthday No class
Sex Trafficking: Definitions, Laws, Discourse
1/20 Weitzer. “New Directions in Research on Human Trafficking.”

 

 

 

 

Discussion:

What is HT?

 

Sex Trafficking: definitions

 

State, National, and International structures that affect human trafficking.

 

The Globe in Tiers.

Week 3

1/25

Read: Farmer. “On Suffering and Structural Violence: A View from Below.”

 

Pedersen. “Explaining Aboriginal/ Non-Aboriginal Inequalities in Postseparation Violence Against Canadian Women: Application of a Structural Violence Approach”

 

 

Discussion:

The narratives, debates, discourses, and approaches that conceptualize human trafficking.

Misconceptions and Hollywood Imaginations.
1/27 Zhang. “Beyond the ‘Natasha’ story.”

Discussion:

Hollywood misconceptions and distortions of human trafficking.

 

Explanation of the human rights framework of trafficking.

 

Film clip from Taken

Participants, the magnitude of the phenomenon, and the deception
Week 4

2/1

Soderlund. “Running from the Rescuers: New U.S. Crusades against Sex Trafficking and the Rhetoric of Abolition.”

 

O’Connell Davidson. “Will the Real Sex Slave Please Stand Up?”

Discussion:

A concept of one’s agency.

 

An examination of sex work and sex trafficking:

The debate and the narratives.

 

Will ending demand end sex trafficking?

The White Rescue efforts.

 

Neocolonial concepts regarding sex work.

2/3 Agualiar-Millan. “Global Crime Case: The Modern Slave Trade.”

 

Raymond. “Prostitutions on Demand Legalizing the Buyers as Sexual Consumers.”

 

Weekes. “South African Anti-Trafficking Legislation: A Critique of Control Over Women’s Freedom of Movement and Sexuality.”

Discussion:

The magnitude of the human trafficking phenomenon.

 

Film:  Don’t Shout Too Loud, a documentary.

Week 5

2/8

Ekberg. “The Swedish Law That Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services.”

 

Farley. “Sex Work: Bad for the Body and Heart.“

Discussion:

Approaches to sex work in three countries.

 

Guest speaker: Jessica Swanson, Department of Criminal Justice.

2/10 If you have not started SL at MWH you will not be able to get a passing grade from the course.

Discussion:

Service-learning experience so far. Reflective journals questions and entries. Feedback.

Part 2. The Crossroads
Week 6

2/15

Bancroft, ix-3.

 

Korytova, Strout. “Meeting the Needs of Victims of Sex Trafficking: DV Victim Services as Appropriate Providers?”

Bring in your journal (no entry yet)

Discussion:

What are the similarities and differences between the DV and ST?

2/17 Glenn and Goodman. “Living With and Within the Rules of Domestic Violence Shelters.”

 

Hand in your journal (1)

 

Discussion:

Could shelters be used survivors of DV and ST both?

Part 3. DV: theories, concepts and discourses: structural violence, objectification theory
Week 7

2/22

Davidson and Gervais. “Violence Against Women Through the Lens of Objectification Theory of Violence Against Women.”

 

Hunnicutt. “Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women.”

Discussion:

Shame, intimate partner violence, objectification, sexual violence

2/24 Study before class: Analytical Study of the Results of the Fourth Round of Monitoring the Implementation of Recommendation Rec(2002)5 on the Protection of Women Against Violence in

Council of Europe member states: http://www.dejmezenamsanci.cz/res/data/010/004393.pdf?seek=4

Group work: Europe and DV

 

Week 8

2/29

Hester. “Feminist Epistemology and the Politics of Method.”

 

Bancroft, 3-76

 

Hand in your journal (2)

Preparation for the paper: Identification of an “experience” with a commentary.

Report on the analytical study.

In-class group work

  Part 4: Domestic Violence: a global and international problem
3/2 Fulu. “Violence Against Women: Globalizing the Integrated Ecological Model.”

 

Engle Merry. “Constructing a Global Law-Violence Against Women and the Human Rights System”

 

Bancroft, 109-135

Discussion:

Culture, law and legality and human rights

 

Week 9

3/7

Bancroft, 136-234

Sokoloff. “Domestic violence at the Intersection of Race, Class, and Gender.”

 

Blanck. “Domestic Violence as a Basis for Asylum Status: a Human Rights Based Approach.”

Discussion:

Race and culture.

Minorities, Asylum Seekers and Human Rights

3/9 No class meeting

Self-study:

DV in the Arab countries

Mernissi. “Muslim Women, and Fundamentalism.”

Mernissi. “Women, Saints, and Sanctuaries.”

No class – I am away at a conference and so this discussion will take place after the Spring break:

Discussion:

Islam, sexuality and sex work

 

Week 10

3/14

Spring break
3/16 Spring break
Week 11

3/21

Poverty and DV

Raj. “Violence Against Immigrant Women”

 

Hand in your journal (3)

Discussion:

Factors affecting immigrant spouse in domestic violence situations

3/23 Gosset. “ ‘Click Here’: A Content Analysis of Internet Rape Sites.”

 

Belknap. “Rape: Too Hard to Report and Too Easy to Discredit Victims.”

 Discussion:

Rape

Week 12

3/28

Romito. “Watching Pornography: “Gender Differences, Violence and Victimization. An Exploratory Study in Italy.”

Discussion:

Pornography and DV

3/30 Bancroft, 235-316

Howarth. “The Effectiveness of Targeted Interventions for Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.”

Outline of the research paper due

Discussion:

Children. Abusive men as parents

 

Abusive men and their allies

 

The abusive man and the legal system

Part 5. Combatting & Responding to trafficking and domestic violence. NGOs
Week 13

4/4

Hand in your journal (4)

 

Doezema. “Who Gets to Choose? Coercion, Consent, and the UN Trafficking Protocol.”

 

Bancroft, 317-333

Discussion:

Combatting and responding to sex

trafficking.

 

Analyze the role of NGOs globally.

 

What NGOs dealing with sex trafficking and domestic violence are you familiar with?

4/6 Zimmerman. “From Bush to Obama: rethinking sex and religion in the United States’ initiative to combat human trafficking.”

Discussion:

Combatting human trafficking in the world by USA

 

How do these two administrations’ policies differ in their impact on human trafficking?

Week 14

4/11

Bancroft, 334-367

Discussion:

ST and DV: Counseling programs

4/13 Bancroft, 367-389

Discussion:

Looking for patterns commonalities, structural changes to eradicate/alleviate.

Week 15

4/18

Research paper due

Hand in your journal (5)

Presentations
4/20 Presentations
Week 16

4/25

Presentations
4/27  Meeting with ACE
Finals week
May 6th Last day of the semester

Major Assignments

Description of assignments and due dates:

  • Experiential Research paper: You will identify a particular experience or set of events at a service site, and you will reflect upon it and analyze the experience within the broader context in order to make recommendations for subsequent action. Having located the relevant material and arrived at the conceptual framework during the second half of the semester, you will use the research to write a formal paper that will analyze the social issue and include recommendations.

The research paper will be written in a concise prose free of grammatical errors. The maximum number of words will be 1,500 (about 6 pages).

 

  • February 29th:

You will identify and describe a perplexing, frustrating, or confusing experience at the service site. You will be asked to then identify an important social issue that may be underlying this circumstance (problems with health care, volunteer recruitment strategies, etc.) You identify the multiple perspectives from which the issue can by analyzed and how it might be the basis for making recommendations to influence community agency operations, policies, or procedures. You will then locate articles in professional journals and other relevant sources to provide a conceptual framework for the issues. Extra credit will be give to papers employing international and global perspectives and a comparative approach. – 2% of grade

 

  • March 30th:

An outline of the research paper due – 8%

 

  • April 18th:

Full paper due – 20%

 

  • Class presentation: You will share your research paper using videos, PowerPoint or speech. Creativity is welcome. Approximately 15 minutes long – 15%.

 

  • Double-entry journal: You will reflect in your journals, expressing your thoughts and feelings about the service experience throughout the semester. I will review the journals on bi-weekly basis (see the syllabus for the dates). Your journal entries will be evaluated for a grade. In your journals you will also connect the service experience to the course content; it is not a mere log of events but rather you will consider your service activities in light of the educational objectives of the course. You will structure your journals so as to transcend mere description and promote connections between the course content and the service activities. Mechanics: you will use a spiral notebook. On the left side of the journal you will describe your service experience, personal thoughts, and reactions to your service activities. On the right side of the journal, you will discuss how the first set of entries relates to key concepts, class presentation and discussions, and readings. You may draw arrows indicating the relationships between your personal experiences and the formal course content – 20%
  • Note: both research paper and the journal assess levels of reflecting.
    • Level one (the lowest):
      • The event/person is described, no insight into the reasons is given, observations are conventional or unassimilated repetitions of what has been heard in the class or from peers.
      • Tends to focus on just one aspect of the situation.
      • Uses unsupported personal beliefs as “hard” evidence.
      • May acknowledge differences of perspective but does not discriminate effectively among them.
    • Level two:
    • Thorough observations, nuanced, but not placed in a broader context.
    • Uses unsupported personal belief and evidence but is beginning to be able to differentiate between them.
    • Perceives legitimate differences between them.
    • Demonstrates a beginning ability to interpret evidence.
    • Level three:
    • Views things form multiple perspectives; able to observe multiple aspects of the situation and place them in context.
    • Perceives conflicting goals within and among the individuals involved in a situation and recognizes that the differences can be evaluated.
    • Recognizes that actions must be situational dependent and understands many of the factors that affect their choice.
    • Makes appropriate judgments based on reason and evidence.
    • Has a reasonable assessment of the importance of the decisions facing clients and of his or her responsibility as a part of the clients’ lives.

 

  • Admission ticket: handed in as you come into the class on a 3 by 5 card. Admission ticket will have a reaction to a question that will be directly related to the reading of the day and will be posted at least 24 hours before the day of the class – 5 times per semester@2 points – 10% total

 

Methods of submission of graded assignments and of other materials:

The research paper will be submitted online

Research paper outline: a hard copy will be submitted in class

Other relevant information posted on-line during the course

Course Policies

Late Work: late work will not be accepted

Extra Credit: no extra credit will be given

Rewriting Papers or Getting Comments on Preliminary Drafts of Papers: papers cannot be rewritten

 

Other Important Information

 

*****Unless announced in advance for specific classroom use, no laptops or other electronic gadgets are permitted. You should take your notes by hand.***********

  • If you require assistance or academic accommodation for a disability, please contact me after class, during office hours or by individual appointment. You must have established your eligibility for support services through the Office for Disability Services for Students.
  • Do not leave class early or come to class late without prior permission.
  • Please turn off your cell phone while in class. If I see you texting on your phone, searching the web for non-class purposes, or using social media, I will ask you to leave.
  • Note on academic dishonesty and plagiarism: Any student who is found to have cheated or to have plagiarized will receive an F for the course and will be reported to the Dean of Students. Check this site to understand better what is plagiarism and how to avoid it: http://www.indiana.edu/~college/plagiarism/.
  • Refer to IU’s code of Student Rights, Responsibilities and Conduct for additional information. Student-instructor relations are dictated by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

 

Turnitin.com: I will be using this service; it will automatically check all your submitted work on Oncourse. That is why all your work will be submitted via Oncourse unless stated otherwise.

 

Course Policies: Expectations for Students

Attendance:

Your participation will be graded in terms of quantity to encourage you to become comfortable discussing political and social issues.  Be respectful of others as there will be differences of opinion.  If you do not talk you cannot get an A in this class.  If you participate regularly showing knowledge of the readings you will be fine and will receive full participation credit. You may miss no more than two classes (with an advance warning); after this point your participation and attendance will be affected: absences above two will result with points being taken off from the total of 100 for every time you do not come to class.  I may include a written answer to a short question at the end of a class or a short quiz. I reserve the right to raise the final grade of those who actively participated in the class discussion, and to lower the grade of those who did not.

Civility and class participation:

You are expected to arrive to class on time and not to leave before class has ended.  Additionally, you are expected to come to class prepared to participate fully in class discussions.

How to contact me:

Email and phone: Either method of contacting me is fine; you may leave messages on the phone. I will not respond to emails on weekends. When writing an email to me students must include his/her name in the email, must put the subject of the email in the subject line, and must use appropriate etiquette and salutations.

 

Students With Disabilities:  Please refer to the website for the Disabilities Services office.

Religious Observances:  Please, let me know in advance.

Students called to active military duty:  Please, let me know in advance.

 

Contacting classmates:

Write down names and contact information for at least 2 classmates (ask for notes and other information if you miss a class):

 

  1. Name: …………………………………………contact: ………………………………………….

 

  1. Name: …………………………………………contact: ………………………………………….

 

 

 

Support Services for Students

Writing Tutorial Services:

 

For free help at any phase of the writing process—from brainstorming to polishing the final draft—call Writing Tutorial Services (WTS, pronounced “wits”) at 855-6738 for an appointment. When you visit WTS, you’ll find a tutor who is a sympathetic and helpful reader of your prose. To be assured of an appointment with the tutor who will know most about your class, please call in advance.

Tutorials are available at the following times and locations. Call 5-6738 for an appointment:

WTS in the Information Commons on the first floor of the Wells Library
Monday-Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.
Friday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

Walk-in tutorials are available when WTS has an opening, but the appointment book often fills in advance.

Walk-in tutorials only:

WTS in the Briscoe, Teter, and Forest Academic Support Centers
Sunday-Thursday 7:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.

the WTS website

 

Academic Support Centers:

Tutoring for students is available at the ASCs

Student Academic Center:

Students may contact the SAC to obtain help with study skills, etc.

Knowledge Base and UITS Support Center:

For technical support, please contact the Knowledge Base or to the UITS Support Center website

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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